ISO 2247:2000 is an international standard that specifies the methods to follow when performing vibration testing in packages or loading units. More specifically, these tests are used to evaluate the performance of the packaging in regard to the endurance and protection it provides when subjected to low-frequency vibrations. In the following article we delve deeper into this standard and the types of vibration testing that may be performed to comply with it.
What is a vibration testing and why is it important to do it?
The main purpose of a vibration test is to reproduce, under real conditions, the movements and vibrations suffered by the product + packaging system during transportation. By registering this data, it is possible to subsequently evaluate the packaging’s behavior and optimize it in order to prevent losses and reduce costs. This standard was created with the purpose of measuring the capability of a package or cargo unit to withstand a distribution cycle that includes hazards such as low-frequency vibrations or repeated shock.
Therefore, the performance of these types of tests is recommended for all companies that transport full packages and single loads. Vibration test systems offer many advantages to the companies that perform them:
- Reduction in losses and shrinkage during the distribution cycle.
- Cost savings arising from poor packaging.
- Improved brand image.
- Offering customers a better service.
To comply with vibration tests, it is necessary to follow a series of guidelines established in various standards, such as ISO 2247:2000.
“This standard was created with the purpose of measuring the capability of a package or cargo unit to withstand a distribution cycle”
Vibration test system: how to comply with ISO 2247:2000
The ISO 2247:2000 standard outlines two different methods for testing vibrations:
- Set up the vibration table for an acceleration between 0.5 g and 1.0 g with the sample to be tested, making sure it does not separate from the table.
- Perform the test selecting a peak-to-peak displacement as per Figure A. 1 of annex A, at a fixed frequency within the appropriate frequency range, to generate a testing acceleration that is between 0.5 g and 1.0 g.
- Set up the vibration table for an acceleration at a specific level, in a way that the sample to be tested separates from the table causing repetitive shocks.
- Select the desired vibration amplitude; then, start the testing vibration at a frequency of 2 Hz and slowly increase until the sample repeatedly separates from the vibration table.
In both cases, a series of established procedures must be previously performed:
- Whenever possible, the test should be carried out in environmental conditions that are identical to those present during the distribution cycle; especially when they are critical for the materials. In other circumstances, the test should be performed in atmospheric conditions that are as close as possible to the ones present during shipping & handling.
- The sample to be tested needs to be placed in a predetermined position in the vibration table, with the center of its lowest side or its center of gravity as close as possible to the center of the table. If the test sample is not secured to the table, it may be hemmed in.
- If an overlaid load is required, the loading procedure must comply with the ISO 2234 standard.
“Whenever possible, the test should be carried out in environmental conditions that are identical to those present during the distribution cycle”
What vibration testing equipment do you need?
In order to properly perform the vibration tests and comply with the ISO 2247:2000 standard, it is necessary to have an adequate equipment for this purpose. Specifically, the required machines are:
- Vertical vibration machine: performs vertical vibrations cause by several handling and transport methods, both by road and by train, sea or air.
- Vibration machine with the pitch & roll module: thanks to its patented technology, this machine performs the simulation of vertical vibrations and pitch and roll motions caused by several handling and transportation means.
At Safe Load TT we have both types of machines – both a vertical vibration machine and an independent pitch & roll module that can be adapted to also provide the pitch and roll suffered by loads during the distribution cycle. This module may be mounted on any vertical vibration table and offers many testing possibilities.
For example, our vertical vibration simulator can reproduce real 3D vibrations experienced during transportation thanks to the patented pitch & roll system. This fact allows load damages to be predicted with a level of precision that has never been seen until now. Furthermore, this machine is designed for loads of up to 1,200 kg and is capable of reproducing real motions registered by a data collector, with precise measuring results on any transport route.
“Our vertical vibration simulator can reproduce real 3D vibrations experienced during transportation thanks to the patented pitch & roll system”
The is composed of a table with different sizes, a servo-hydraulic vibration system, 1-G pneumatic dampeners to support static loads and a steel seismic mass for vibration insulation, and includes a user-friendly control software by Real Vibrations. This equipment can also reproduce the PSD that were previously generated by the data recorder (DR). In addition, it can be installed inside an environmental chamber that allows for testing under real environmental conditions.
Our system is compatible with the following vibration tests:
- EN 15552: 2008 Packaging: Complete, filled transport packages and unit loads. Performance: testing schedules for common distribution chains.
- ASTM D4169-16: Standard practice for container and shipping system performance tests.
- ISTA Procedures: 1A, B, C, D, E, G, H; 2A, B, C; 3A, B, E, F, H, K; 4 Series; 6-FEDEX; 6-SAMSCLUB, 6-AMAZON.COM.
There are many companies that already have Safe Load machines to perform their vibration tests, such as Duo Plast, which purchased a multi-axis 3D vibration system as an addition to its laboratory, in order to provide this testing service to its clients; or Newton Research, a Malaysian company that developed a laboratory to provide testing services with several machines, among which is our vibration + pitch & roll machine.
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